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A Comprehensive Guide to the 0x Protocol

2M ago





The 0x protocol is an open-source, peer-to-peer protocol that enables anyone to build decentralized exchanges (DEXs) on the Ethereum blockchain. It was developed in 2017 by Will Warren and Amir Bandeali.

The goal of the Protocol is to provide a secure, cost-effective way for users to trade tokens and other digital assets without the need for centralized intermediaries.

The 0x Protocol consists of two primary components: a smart contract system and relayers. The smart contracts are responsible for executing trades between different parties and ensuring their validity, while relayers are responsible for broadcasting orders and matching buyers/sellers.

What makes the 0x Protocol unique compared to other DEXs is its off-chain order books, which allow traders to perform trades without publishing them on the blockchain. This makes it much faster and more efficient than other DEXs, which require users to wait for their transactions to be confirmed by the Ethereum network before they can trade.

In this guide, we’ll discuss how the 0x Protocol works, its advantages over traditional exchanges, and how developers can build applications that leverage its features. We’ll also cover some of the popular projects that are built upon the 0x protocol and dive into some of its potential use cases.

How does the 0x Protocol work?

One of the issues 0x is trying to solve is the blockchain transaction fees that occur when transferring cryptocurrencies. Every transaction leads to a fee collected by miners, and when a user makes multiple transactions, this fee accumulates quickly.

Processing times also vary so traders have no way to pinpoint how long their transactions will take to be completed.

0x’s solution resolves this problem with their off-chain ordering relays. Through this system, another user can fill the order instead of having it go through the miners on the blockchain – greatly reducing the “gas fees” associated with transactions. The system also allows users to bypass lengthy transaction times and receive faster settlements from traders.

The 0x protocol enables a decentralized blockchain order-matching process through the use of relayers, makers, and takers.

Relayers are responsible for broadcasting orders, which can be public or private, and hosting the corresponding order books. They manage the order book but do not actually execute trades.

The Makers interact with the relay to create orders that are then picked up by takers for final processing via their smart contract.

Upon completion of orders, the relayer earns a fee in the form of ZRX – the native token of 0x – as compensation for their role in facilitating trades.

0x APIs

The 0x API is the essential interface for developers to access the 0x Protocol and trade ERC20 assets. It provides two major endpoints, /swap and /orderbook.

The /swap endpoint allows users to acquire quotes for liquidity from an aggregated pool of on-chain and off-chain networks via smart order routing; this allows for transactions to be filled with minimum slippage as transaction costs are kept at a minimum.

The orderbook endpoint offers open order book liquidity to applications or users, providing them with limit orders which are publicly available instantaneously.

ZRX token

The ZRX token is an ERC-20 token created by 0x and used to facilitate all interactions within the protocol. It serves as a utility token that enables users to access various features of the platform, such as paying for transaction fees, voting on updates to the protocol, and staking tokens in order to become a relayer.

ZRX has a total supply of 1 billion tokens, allowing token holders to take advantage of liquidity incentives by staking their coins. Half of these tokens were sold to the community during their initial coin offering.

ZRX stake pools have participants who split rewards based on their respective share of the pool. Since the protocol runs on Ethereum, incentives are received in ETH, which can then be converted into ZRX coins on the platform itself.

The ZRX token also grants holders voting rights within the 0x ecosystem. This allows them to weigh in on major protocol decisions, such as which assets should be added or removed from the platform.

ZRX tokens can be obtained by becoming a relayer or issued to partnering dApps or end-users. The tokens are by a variety of exchanges where individuals can purchase, sell, or exchange the currency for other cryptocurrencies. Exchanges are an effective way to acquire them while minimizing risk.

Projects built on the 0x Protocol

  1. Radar – Radar Relay is a decentralized exchange built on 0x that allows users to make trades directly from their wallets, without having to deal with signing up for an account or entering any personal information. It also provides its users with access to fiat-to-crypto gateways and advanced features such as margin trading. The platform is secured using smart contracts, which are audited regularly to ensure the safety of user funds.
  2. dYdX – dYdX focuses on providing traders with an easy-to-use interface and powerful tools, allowing them to trade digital assets quickly and securely. It is powered by 0x protocol and allows users to make margin trades, borrow against assets, go long or short on positions, and more.
  3. ParaDex – ParaDex is a 0x-based decentralized exchange that enables users to trade Ethereum-based tokens securely and quickly. The platform provides its users with access to a range of digital assets, as well as advanced trading features such as limit orders and margin trading.
  4. RhiniFi – RhiniFi is a 0x-based decentralized exchange that allows users to make trades with confidence, as it is built on top of the Ethereum blockchain. The platform provides its users with access to deep liquidity and advanced trading features such as margin trading and limit orders.

Advantages of the 0x Protocol

One major benefit is that it enables users to trade tokens without having to trust any third-party intermediaries. This eliminates the need for costly middlemen and reduces the risk of malicious actors manipulating prices or stealing funds.

Because it uses an off-chain order book, it’s much faster than other DEXs as users don’t have to wait for their transactions to be confirmed by the Ethereum network before they can trade.

Its modular design allows developers to customize their applications according to their specific needs.

Risks associated with using the 0x Protocol

Since it is a decentralized network, transactions made on the platform cannot be reversed or canceled once they have been broadcasted to the Ethereum blockchain. This means users must take extra care when trading and verify all details before initiating a transaction.

The Protocol’s reliance on Ethereum also presents potential risks. If Ethereum’s blockchain experiences delays due to high levels of traffic or technical issues, this could have an adverse effect on users who rely on 0x for their trades.

Since its release in 2017, 0x has experienced several security breaches and vulnerabilities that may lead to losses if not addressed properly. It is therefore important to keep up to date with the latest security updates and best practices when using 0x.


The newest version of 0x Protocol, which launched in August of 2020, is helping to create a more harmonious decentralized finance (DeFi) system. By introducing bridge contracts and aggregating liquidity across several DeFi exchange networks, the protocol allows for secure cross-chain transactions and better pricing accessibility.

Users now have access to even more incentives; market makers who stake their tokens will be rewarded with Ethereum currency and extra voting power when it comes to governance decisions.

Through its order book, users can create and store records of digital assets such as apps or online gaming data. This data is stored securely in tamper-resistant Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs). This technology also makes itself useful for tracking collectibles, stocks and bonds, loyalty points, and even banking transactions, with the added perk of permanence–allowing all information to be safely stored on the blockchain.

Legal documents can also be generated with authenticity verified through NFTs from 0x. This opens up a world of exciting opportunities for businesses, banks, collectors, and more.


The 0x Protocol has emerged as a leader in the decentralized finance (DeFi) space, providing users with access to a wide range of digital assets and advanced trading features. It allows for secure cross-chain transactions, better pricing accessibility, and incentives for market makers. Its order book also provides users with an immutable record of their digital assets and other data that can be stored securely in NFTs. With its numerous advantages and growing utility, it’s no wonder why 0x is quickly becoming one of the most popular DEX protocols on the Ethereum blockchain.

If you want to know more about the Ox Protocol, here’s a good resource.

2M ago




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